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By Saeed Bhutta

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Extra resources for Ahmad Khan Kharal: A Punjabi Hero of 1857

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Overall losses on loan programs, taking account of administration costs, in addition to interest subsidies and non-repayment, are shown in Column seven of Table 2; given the low assumed value of administration costs, these results should be regarded as conservative estimates of what the true net loss to government is likely to be. e. losses of 33 and 37 percent respectively), while the programs in Venezuela and Kenya actually cost more than would outright grants to students. Page 19 Box 3: Equity and Risk Aversion The equity considerations of student loans are no less important than financial efficiency.

Column three shows the proportion of teaching expenditures that governments effectively recover from students who receive a loan. In these seven countries, with some of the highest public sector cost recovery in the world, governments recover only between four percent (Colombia) and 14 percent (Quebec) of instructional costs from loan recipients. Actual cost recovery, however, is even lower because in every instance, except Australia, the average size loan is larger than tuition costs. So governments are actually spending large amounts of money on student support in addition to institutional subsidies.

A final administrative approach utilizes existing government structures for disbursement and collection. To address some of the administrative problems involved with income contingent collection, two countries (Ghana and Australia) utilize the government revenue collection systems to recover loans. In Ghana, the collection is managed by the Social Security department; in Australia, through the national income tax. Transactions are made directly to and from the budgets of different government bodies, without creating new administrative structures.

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Ahmad Khan Kharal: A Punjabi Hero of 1857 by Saeed Bhutta

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