By Ian Shapiro, Kahreen Tebeau
Democracy got here to South Africa in April 1994, whilst the African nationwide Congress received a landslide victory within the first loose nationwide election within the country's background. That definitive and peaceable transition from apartheid is usually pointed out as a version for others to stick to. the hot order has because survived numerous transitions of ANC management, and it avoided a in all probability destabilizing constitutional quandary in 2008. but huge, immense demanding situations stay. Poverty and inequality are one of the maximum on this planet. superb unemployment has fueled xenophobia, leading to lethal aggression directed at refugees and migrant employees from Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Violent crime premiums, fairly homicide and rape, stay grotesquely excessive. The HIV/AIDS pandemic was once shockingly mishandled on the maximum degrees of presidency, and an infection premiums remain overwhelming. regardless of the country's uplifting luck of webhosting Africa's first global Cup in 2010, inefficiency and corruption stay rife, infrastructure and easy providers are frequently semifunctional, and political competition and a unfastened media are stressed. during this quantity, significant students chronicle South Africa's achievements and demanding situations because the transition. The contributions, all formerly unpublished, characterize the state-of-the-art within the learn of South African politics, economics, legislations, and social coverage.
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Additional resources for After Apartheid: Reinventing South Africa?
Such claims were disputed by Bhorat. Using data from post-1993 household surveys (the OHS and LFS), he argued that total employment rose, with as many as two million net new jobs created between 1995 and 2003–4 (Bhorat 2003b; Bhorat and Oosthuizen 2006; Oosthuizen 2006). Casale, Muller, and Posel (2005) showed that about onethird of this employment growth was due to changes in measurement (with a more inclusive deﬁnition of self-employment). , very low-income) informal sector and the formal sector.
When social spending in kind (such as public education and health care), social spending as cash (primarily social assistance), and taxation are considered, the Gini coefﬁcient for the distribution of “income” in South Africa was reduced by 38 Jeremy Seekings fourteen percentage points in 1995, eighteen percentage points in 2000, and twenty-two percentage points in 2005–6 (van der Berg 2009, 24). The problem with ﬁscal incidence analysis is that it apportions government spending among different sections of the population without assessment of the actual value of this spending to the poor (see van der Berg 2005a, 39–43).
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a broader measure, developed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and reported in the UNDP’s annual Human Development Report. 3 The HDI in South Africa rose steadily in the last years of apartheid, as it did in most other countries. It peaked around 1995, then declined steadily until 2004. The HDI rose slightly between 2004 and 2005, probably due primarily to rising GDP per capita. Nonetheless, South Africa’s ranking declined from 90th in the world in 1994 to 125th in 2006.
After Apartheid: Reinventing South Africa? by Ian Shapiro, Kahreen Tebeau