By David G. Kleinbaum, Kevin M. Sullivan, Nancy D. Barker
This booklet includes the content material of the ActivEpi CD-ROM pages plus extra routines and an appendix on machine programs.
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All the measurement issues described above must be addressed prior to data collection to ensure standardized information is collected and to provide a study that is both cost and time efficient. 2) 1. 2. 3. 4. What other variables might you also consider as control variables in the Beach Users Study? How do we decide which variables to measure as control variables? Why should age be considered? How would you deal with subjects who went to the beach on more than one day? Summary: Measuring the Variables General measurement issues: How to operationalize the way a measurement is carried out?
Ate at restaurant A? The health outcome variable, D, indicates whether or not a study subject was clinically diagnosed with Legionnaires Disease during the three week period from mid to late October. The exposure variable is conceptually whatever variable indicates the main source of the outbreak. Since this variable is essentially unknown at the start of the study, there is a large collection of exposure variables, all of which need to be identified as part of the study design and investigated as candidates for being the primary source of the outbreak.
A. medication . . b. vaccine . c. either ??? 7. Analysis by: . a. original assignment . . b. actual experience . ??? 3-2 Observational Study Designs There are three general categories of observational designs: • Basic Designs: Cohort, Case-Controls, Cross-Sectional • Hybrid Designs: Nested Case-Control, Case-Cohort • Incomplete Designs: Ecologic, Proportional Cohort Studies In 1948, a long-term observational study began in Framingham Massachusetts. Fifty-one hundred subjects without cardiovascular disease (CVD) were selected and examined, and information about potential risk factors for this disease was recorded.
ActivEpi Companion Textbook by David G. Kleinbaum, Kevin M. Sullivan, Nancy D. Barker