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Download e-book for kindle: 21st century astronomy by John Jeffrey Hester; et al

By John Jeffrey Hester; et al

ISBN-10: 0393931986

ISBN-13: 9780393931983

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Under this new defi nition, Pluto, known to all of us as the “ninth planet” since its discovery in 1930, was unceremoniously stripped of its planet status and demoted to dwarf planet. We might defi ne the size of our Solar System by its most distant planetary body, a dwarf planet called “Eris,” although others could rightfully include the realm of small, icy bodies that extends far beyond the orbit of Eris. The Sun is located about halfway out from the center of a flattened collection of stars, gas, and dust, referred to as the Milky Way Galaxy.

Local universe. 7 billion years to traverse—and within this volume we estimate that there are several hundred billion galaxies, roughly as many galaxies as there are stars in the Milky Way! 1 Getting a Feel for the Neighborhood The Scale of the Universe One of the fi rst conceptual hurdles that we face as we begin to think about the universe is its sheer size. If a hill is big, then a mountain is really big. If a mountain is really big, then Earth is enormous. But where do we go from there? We quickly run out of superlatives as the scale of what we are talking about comes to dwarf our human experience.

In science, a hypothesis is an idea that leads to testable predictions. A hypothesis may be the forerunner of a scientific theory, or it may be based on an existing theory, or both. When an idea has been thought about carefully enough, has been tied solidly to existing theoretical and experimental knowledge, and makes testable predictions, then that idea has become a theory. Scientists build theoretical models that are used to connect theories with the behavior of complex systems. Ultimately, the basis for deciding among competing theories is the success of their predictions.

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21st century astronomy by John Jeffrey Hester; et al

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